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L-Glutamine Benefits, Uses, Side Effects and Functions

Discover the Function, Sources and Benefits of the Health Supplement Ingredient L-Glutamine, or 2-Amino-4-Carbamoylbutanoic Acid

Glutamine – also known as L-glutamine and 2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid – is considered a conditionally essential amino acid. This means that while the body is usually able to produce sufficient amounts of glutamine for its daily needs, L-glutamine supplementation may be required in instances when glutamine is depleted due to stressors. Illness, injury, surgery, chemotherapy and intense exercise can all deplete glutamine levels. Individuals who need to replenish L-glutamine can obtain it through certain food sources as well as in natural health and bodybuilding supplements such as HGF-MAX, HGH 30,000 Nanograms pills and spray, and whey protein mixes.

Functions of L-Glutamine

Amino acids serve as the building blocks of protein, and glutamine acts as a precursor for protein synthesis. It is primarily produced by and stored within muscle, and distributed to other organs via the bloodstream. L-glutamine is believed to act as a human growth hormone (HGH) releaser, also known as an HGH secretagogue. In addition, glutamine is the major fuel source for enterocytes (intestinal absorptive cells) as well as lymphocytes and macrophages (white blood cells that play a key role within the immune system), and it appears to be required for healthy brain function and digestion. Furthermore, L-glutamine is involved in nitrogen exchange and plays a critical role in removing excess ammonia resulting from protein catabolism.

Sources of L-Glutamine

Dietary sources of glutamine include meat (beef, pork and poultry); dairy (milk, yogurt, ricotta cheese and cottage cheese); egg whites; leafy greens (raw spinach and cabbage); legumes (peanuts and soybeans); and grains (wheat, corn and barley). L-glutamine may also be consumed directly – in powder, tablet, capsule or liquid form – as part of a natural dietary supplement.

L-Glutamine Benefits and Uses

Considering L-glutamine’s role as an HGH releaser and precursor for protein synthesis, and given that glutamine levels typically drop following intense exercise, this amino acid has become a popular ingredient in health and bodybuilding supplements. Rigorous workouts and lifting reduce intramuscular glutamine stores and can weaken the muscles if levels are not replenished. That’s why athletes, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts often take L-glutamine supplements to aid in muscle maintenance, promote cell renewal and support the immune system – particularly when undergoing intensive training.

For many of the same reasons, L-glutamine can be a useful dietary supplement for individuals recovering from illness, injury, infections, severe burns and surgery. By strengthening the immune system, L-glutamine helps to fight off infections and neutralize excess ammonia and cortisol in the body. Its role in protecting the gastrointestinal lining may help individuals suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or short-bowel syndrome. It can help HIV/AIDS patients avoid weight loss, as it enables the intestines to better absorb nutrients. Evidence also suggests L-glutamine may be beneficial for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy by helping to combat cachexia (weight loss, muscle atrophy and fatigue) and stomatitis (inflammation and soreness in the mouth).

Side Effects of L-Glutamine and Potential Interactions

L-glutamine supplements are generally considered safe for adults, and no significant side effects have been reported in healthy users. However, L-glutamine may exacerbate symptoms in people with certain medical conditions, including liver disease, hepatic encephalopathy, kidney disease, Reye syndrome, seizures and mania.

Interactions are possible with some medications; for example, L-glutamine supplements may decrease the effectiveness of lactulose and anticonvulsants. There has also been conflicting evidence concerning the use of glutamine for cancer patients; while some studies confirm its beneficial effects, others indicate it may interact with cancer medications or potentially stimulate tumor growth. More detailed safety information on L-glutamine side effects and interactions can be found on WebMD. As with any medication or health supplement, it is best to consult your physician before taking dietary supplements containing L-glutamine.

L-Glutamine Research and Studies

Numerous research studies have explored the impact of L-glutamine supplements on subjects ranging from healthy athletes to critically ill patients. In terms of its efficacy as an HGH releaser, an article published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicated that a small oral L-glutamine load is capable of raising alkaline reserves and increasing HGH concentration in plasma. Another study cited in Nutritional Neuroscience found that an oral supplement containing L-glutamine, glycine and niacin was shown to enhance HGH secretion in healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects.

According to the Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, researchers found that L-glutamine and carbohydrate supplementation improved the physical performance of athletes during repeated competitions by preventing anaerobic power decrease. An article published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition reported that L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation provided a significant ergogenic benefit by increasing time to exhaustion during endurance exercise. Animal studies also showed promising results; in Cell Biochemistry and Function, scientists examined muscle damage and inflammation in rats following prolonged exercise and found that L-glutamine supplementation diminished inflammation biomarkers and the inflammatory response.

Other research has explored L-glutamine’s effects from a medical perspective. A meta-analysis published in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care concluded that L-glutamine has a beneficial effect on infectious complications and reduces the length of hospital stays, and noted that it may reduce morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. For additional L-glutamine research, refer to the PubMed site sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

HGH.com Supplements With L-Glutamine

Athletes, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts can replenish glutamine levels and leverage the positive impact of L-glutamine with natural HGH and bodybuilding supplements from HGH.com:

HGF MAX – These capsules were scientifically developed to elevate HGH levels with key ingredients such as L-glutamine and other amino acids, which collectively help to build muscle, enhance muscle tone, increase metabolism and improve stamina.

HGH 30,000 Nanograms Pills and HGH 30,000 Nanograms Spray – Available in capsule and spray forms, HGH 30,000 Nanograms stimulates HGH production through a powerful combination of L-group amino acids, including L-glutamine. These oral supplements support muscle growth, fat-burning, increased energy and other benefits.

Multi-Pro Chocolate Whey Protein – With more than 3.7 grams of L-glutamine and 24 grams of protein per serving, Multi-Pro is a complete protein supplement that is designed to help users gain muscle, lose body fat and support the immune system.

Elite Whey Protein Butter Toffee and Elite Whey Protein Chocolate Mint – Each serving of Elite whey protein delivers more than 3.5 grams of glutamine and glutamine precursors plus 5 grams of branched-chain amino acids to help grow and strengthen muscle while aiding in muscle repair and recovery.

CytoSport Vanilla Whey Protein – One serving of low-fat, low-lactose, CytoSport whey protein contains 18 grams of protein and is naturally rich in L-glutamine and branched-chain amino acids. It aids users in developing lean muscle mass and recovering more quickly after intense training.

CytoSport EvoPro Berry – Each scoop of EvoPro Berry contains 3 grams of L-glutamine and 26 grams of protein, yet has very little carbohydrates or fat. It helps to promote lean muscle mass, stimulate growth receptors and sustain an anabolic state.

Mega Shake Strawberry – Featuring a powerful blend of active ingredients – including L-glutamine – Mega Shake provides 32 grams of total protein per serving. It is formulated to help increase muscle tone, reduce body fat, provide energy and support muscle recovery.

NOX-CG3 Fruit Punch and NOX-CG3 Blue Raspberry – With a blend of L-arginine, creatine and L-glutamine, this advanced formulation is designed to boost energy, enhance nutrient absorption and reduce recovery time after strenuous workouts.

NxLabs Plasmavol, NxLabs Pump System and NxLabs Ultimate Muscle Expansion Pack – These NxLabs supplements contain L-glutamine and other amino acids to help accelerate nitric oxide production, enhance muscle pumps and vascularity, and increase strength.


References (Function, Sources, Benefits/Uses and Side Effects/Interactions):

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. “Glutamine”; published under “About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products” within Integrative Medicine area of website; last updated February 21, 2013. <http://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/herb/glutamine>

University of Maryland Medical Center. “Glutamine”; published under the “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide” on the website; last updated May 7, 2013. <http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/glutamine>

Presser, Art. “Amino Acids”; Smart Supplementation, published by Huntington College of Health Sciences; 2009. <http://www.hchs.edu/literature/Amino%20Acids.pdf>

WebMD and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. “Glutamine”; published under “Vitamins & Supplements”; accessed August 14, 2014. <http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-878-glutamine.aspx?activeingredientid=878&activeingredientname=glutamine>

Research Sources:

Arwert, Lucia I.; Deijen, Jan Berend; and Drent, Madeleine L. “Effects of An Oral Mixture Containing Glycine, Glutamine and Niacin on Memory, GH and IGF-I Secretion in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects”; Nutritional Neuroscience; October 1, 2003. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609312>

Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; and Tirapegu, Julio. “Effects of Supplementation With Free Glutamine and the Dipeptide Alanyl-Glutamine on Parameters of Muscle Damage and Inflammation in Rats Submitted to Prolonged Exercise”; Cell Biochemistry and Function; January 2010. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19885855>

Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; et al. “Examination of the Efficacy of Acute L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Ingestion During Hydration Stress in Endurance Exercise”; Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; February 3, 2010. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20181080>

Khorshidi-Hosseini, Mahdi and Nakhostin-Roohi, Babak. “Effect of Glutamine and Maltodextrin Acute Supplementation on Anaerobic Power”; Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; June 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23802055>

Melis, Gerdien C.; ter Wengel, Nathalie; et al. “Glutamine: Recent Developments in Research on the Clinical Significance of Glutamine”; Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care; January 2004. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15090905>

Welbourne, Thomas C. “Increased Plasma Bicarbonate and Growth Hormone After an Oral Glutamine Load”; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; May 1995. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7733028>




L-Leucine Benefits, Uses, Side Effects and Functions

Discover the Function, Sources and Benefits of the Health Supplement Ingredient L-Leucine or 2-Amino-4-Methylpentanoic Acid

Leucine – also known as L-leucine and by its scientific name, 2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid – is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). Because the human body cannot synthesize this essential amino acid, it must be obtained from food sources such as meat, dairy products and legumes. L-leucine is also available in natural dietary supplements, including health and bodybuilding supplements such as Ana-GH, DBol-GH, Cut and Ripped Plus, Amino Shooter and Chocolate Whey Protein.

Functions of L-Leucine

Branched-chain amino acids like L-leucine stimulate protein synthesis by triggering pancreatic islet cells to release insulin. This protein synthesis primarily takes place in skeletal muscle, but also occurs to a lesser extent in the liver and adipose (fat) tissue. It is believed that L-leucine may help prevent or reduce muscle damage, enhance anabolic muscle signaling, lower blood-glucose levels and avoid faulty message transmission in the brain cells of people with certain diseases. It may also decrease serotonin production by blocking tryptophan transport to the brain, thereby reducing feelings of drowsiness and fatigue.

Sources of L-Leucine

According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), common dietary sources of L-leucine include beef, pork, fish, chicken, turkey, eggs, cheese and milk. Legumes are another good source – particularly beans, soy and peanuts – as are nuts and seeds (such as almonds and sunflower seeds) and grains (like wheat germ, oats, corn and rice). L-leucine may also be consumed directly as part of a natural dietary supplement.

Leucine Benefits and Uses

Because of L-leucine’s role in protein synthesis, it is often used in health and bodybuilding supplements that are designed to build muscle strength, increase exercise endurance, reduce muscle breakdown and promote muscle recovery. Its ability to inhibit serotonin production means that L-leucine may help prevent or delay fatigue during exercise. L-leucine has also been shown to stimulate the appetite – making it useful for athletes looking to gain mass and weight.

In addition, L-leucine appears to benefit individuals with specific medical conditions. For example, it may help to lower blood-glucose levels in diabetics, and it can improve the health and nutrition of patients experiencing loss of appetite due to hemodialysis, cancer treatments or anorexia. L-leucine has also been shown to diminish symptoms in manic patients, reduce involuntary movements in individuals with tardive dyskinesia, and improve muscle control and brain function in patients with advanced liver disease, including various forms of hepatic encephalopathy.

Side Effects of L-Leucine and Potential Interactions

L-leucine is generally considered safe when taken in normal doses, such as those found in food and most dietary supplements. However, excessive amounts can result in hypoglycemia or vitamin B3 and B6 deficiencies. Users are advised to adhere to supplement dosing information and avoid consuming more than 39 grams of L-leucine per day.

Few L-leucine side effects have been recorded, though some users have reported experiencing fatigue or decreased motor coordination. Individuals with certain medical conditions – including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease), isovaleric acidemia, branched-chain ketoaciduria (maple syrup urine disease) and chronic alcoholism – should avoid L-leucine, as it can pose health risks in these patients. In terms of L-leucine interactions, it appears to decrease the effectiveness of levodopa. Conversely, it can have an additive effect when taken with diabetes medication, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia. Other medications – such as Diazoxide and corticosteroids – can decrease the effects of L-leucine on protein, while thyroid hormone medication can cause the body to break down L-leucine more slowly.

More detailed safety information on L-leucine side effects and interactions can be found on WebMD. As with any medication or health supplement, it is best to consult your physician before taking dietary supplements containing L-leucine.

L-Leucine Research and Studies

Scientists have researched L-leucine and other BCAAs to determine their benefits and practical uses, and numerous studies have indicated a positive effect on muscle strength, exercise endurance and muscle recovery. An article published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology reported that outrigger canoeists using leucine supplements displayed significantly improved endurance performance and upper-body power. In Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, researchers noted that well-trained male cyclists who took a leucine-protein supplement after intense training subsequently exhibited improved high-intensity endurance performance and lower perceived levels of tiredness. And according to the Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, resistance-trained males who consumed an energy drink with leucine (and other key ingredients) prior to their workout demonstrated a significant increase in the number of repetitions successfully performed.

Other studies examined the impact of L-leucine on protein synthesis. Research findings published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicated that increasing the concentration of leucine in an essential amino acid supplement consumed during steady-state exercise resulted in a greater muscle protein synthesis response during recovery. And in The Journal of Nutrition, researchers determined that insulin and leucine work in synergy, allowing skeletal muscles to coordinate protein synthesis with physiological state and dietary intake.

For additional research related to L-leucine, refer to the PubMed site sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

HGH.com Supplements With L-Leucine
Athletes, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts who wish to leverage the positive effects of L-leucine can find this essential amino acid in a variety of natural health and bodybuilding supplements from HGH.com:

Ana-GH – Each serving of Ana-GH contains 1.5 grams of L-leucine, which is blended with other branched-chain amino acids and active ingredients. This supplement is designed to jumpstart bulking cycles by promoting weight and mass gains while improving protein synthesis and contributing to joint and muscle repair.

Cut and Ripped Plus – Created to support cutting cycles and contest prep, Cut and Ripped Plus combines L-leucine with other active ingredients to help build muscle, increase strength and burn fat for a competition-ready physique. The capsules also help to boost energy and stamina, minimize pain, promote faster recovery and raise human growth hormone (HGH) levels.

DBol-GH – The proprietary blend of ingredients in DBol-GH includes L-leucine, which helps users to achieve lean mass and muscle growth, and also aids in muscle recovery. DBol-GH’s active ingredients are designed to stack and work together, delivering visible results and increasing HGH production.

Amino Shooter and Creatine Energy – Formulated to mix easily with cold water, Amino Shooter is used during intense workouts to protect and grow muscle. A single serving contains 3 grams of L-leucine, which supports protein synthesis and reduces muscle degradation.

Multi-Pro Chocolate Whey Protein – Each scoop of Multi-Pro Chocolate Whey provides 24 grams of protein and includes 2.16 grams of L-leucine. Fortified with vitamins and minerals, it provides a complete protein supplement for those looking to gain muscle and lose body fat.


References (Function, Sources, Benefits/Uses and Side Effects/Interactions):

Bruno, Gene. “A Primer on Branched Chain Amino Acids”; Smart Supplementation, published by Huntington College of Health Sciences; 2009. <http://www.hchs.edu/literature/BCAA.pdf>

Deuster, Patricia; Maier, Steven; et al. “Protein and Amino Acids Products – Branched Chain Amino Acids: Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine”; Dietary Supplements and Military Divers: A Synopsis for Undersea Medical Officers, published by Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; January 2004. <http://hprc-online.org/dietary-supplements/files/DietarySupplementUMO.pdf>

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. “Leucine”; published under “About Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products” within Integrative Medicine area of website; last updated February 21, 2013. <http://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/herb/leucine>

USDA Agricultural Research Service. “Leucine” search results in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference; accessed July 30, 2014. <http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/nutrients/index>

WebMD and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. “Branched Chain Amino Acids”; published under “Vitamins & Supplements”; accessed July 30, 2014. <http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1005-BRANCHED-CHAIN+AMINO+ACIDS.aspx?activeIngredientId=1005&activeIngredientName=BRANCHED-CHAIN+AMINO+ACIDS>

Research Sources:

Crowe, Melissa J.; Weatherson, Jarrad N.; and Bowden, Bruce F. “Effects of Dietary Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Performance”; European Journal of Applied Physiology; August 2006. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16265600>

Gonzalez, Adam M.; Walsh, Allyson L.; et al. “Effect of a Pre-Workout Energy Supplement on Acute Multi-Joint Resistance Exercise”; Journal of Sports Science & Medicine; June 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149870>

Norton, Layne E. and Layman, Donald K. “Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Exercise: Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise”; The Journal of Nutrition; February 2006. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16424142>

Pasiakos, Stefan M.; McClung, Holly L.; et al. “Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acid Supplementation During Moderate Steady State Exercise Enhances Postexercise Muscle Protein Synthesis”; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; September 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21775557>

Thomson, Jasmine S.; Ali, Ajmol; and Rowlands, David S. “Leucine-Protein Supplemented Recovery Feeding Enhances Subsequent Cycling Performance in Well-Trained Men”; Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism; April 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21609286>




Must-See Mass Gain Videos & Tips from Bodybuilding Pros

Maximize Your Muscle Gain Potential

Want to increase your muscle mass? If you are, you're not alone. This is a primary workout goal for most of us. However, adding muscle is oftentimes a struggle. At HGH.com, we understand how challenging gaining mass can be. We believe that three significant factors come into play:

  1. Fuel your workouts with the right foods.
  2. Commit yourself to a strong training program.
  3. Arm yourself with the right combination of mass gaining supplements.

For anyone looking for a little inspiration to pump up your mass gain potential, we've put together a few YouTube videos and a dedicated Mass Gain Pinterest board to get you on your way.

Build Muscle Mass Like Professional Bodybuilders

How can you gain the mass you want? In the video below, eight-time Mr. Olympia, Ronnie Coleman, explains how to gain good weight. He shares the changes he makes to gain weight when he’s not preparing for a competition. From making sure he takes in the right amount of protein to increasing his carbohydrate intake, he gives us the low-down on how he modifies his food intake and exercise routine to put on some good pounds.

How to Gain More Strength and Size

Whether you’re a bodybuilder entering your next bulking cycle or an experienced lifter who wants to bulk up, it’s ideal to workout both parts of the muscle. When it comes to new muscle growth and gaining mass, intensity is key. Personal trainer and bodybuilder, Jada Castellari, takes you through his high-intensity upper body workout routine and shows how he does various strip sets.

The training routine in the video below is designed for the front shoulders, chest and triceps. For the first part of the set, you overload the strength part of the muscle by using higher weight and lower reps. Then, toward the end of the set, use less weight with constant tension, while doing faster repetitions to drain the muscle of energy and overload that part of the muscle as well. If you’ve learned to master intensity, then this mass gaining routine may be just the workout you’ve been looking for to take you to the next level.

Bodybuilder Competition Poses to Show Off Your Muscle Mass

When it’s time for your bodybuilding competition, you have to be sure you do the mandatory poses in a way that best represents all of the muscles you worked so hard to build up. IFBB Pro Bodybuilder, power lifting champion and HGH.com sponsor, Ben White, did just that as he completed the mandatory poses portion of the Mr. Europe Pro IFBB competition in the video below.

Mass Gain Pins for You on Pinterest

Check out the Pins on HGH.com's Mass Gain Pinterest board

Follow Bodybuilding's board Mass Gain on Pinterest.

 




ANA-GH is coming...

We couldn't fit all the ingredients into one single pill... we couldn't fit them in 7. It took a serving size of 8 pills for the ingredients of our newest bodybuilding pillANA-GH. (Anadral Growth Hormone).
 
One of 3 new products coming out this year, we're so excited for ANA-GH because we know it's going to be a game changer. Developed in the lab with a bunch of leading doctors and scientists like all of our products, ANA-GH has a lot of leading ingredients that will make it a leader in the bodybuilding supplement family. 
 
 
  • L-Isoleucine 750 mg *
  • L-Leucine 1,500 mg *
  • L-Valine 750 mg *
  • L-Arginine 400 mg *
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine 400 mg *
  • L-Alanine 200 mg *
  • L-Cysteine 20 mg
 
There's a lot of products currently on the market that are simply marketing gimmicks and pretty packaging with false claims. They suck you in with a pretty box and a "Free Trial" where your credit card never stops getting charged. We take our products seriously and that's why our customers keep coming back! But I digress. Our new ANA-GH will be a hit not only for it's pretty packaging, but it's ingredients are leading edge.
 
We took our existing bodybuilding and muscle growth supplements (Anadral), and revisited the ingredients with the latest advances in science. The Anadral formula was a few years old and science moves much faster. We wanted to make this a leader like our HGH, SomatropinneClen XDVTestosteroneMaximizer, etc... all of our other leading edge HGH Supplements and pills.
 
This new bodybuilding pill will stimulate muscle growth and protein synthesis. It will slow the degradation of muscle tissue. This will be the ONLY Amino Acid supplement that has this capacity. It will also help in the healing of muscle tissue and improve immune function, and increase the release of hormones.

ANA-GH is now available at HGH.com!







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